J. P. E. Hartmann was one of Denmark's most significant composers. In addition to that, he was an organist. Hartmann was pupil of his father Aug. W. H. (a son of the above Johannes H.) and of Ludwig Spohr. He was a central character in Danish musical life throughout the 19th century. Hartmann was chairman of The Music Society from 1939 to 92. He was organist at the Copenhagen Cathedral from 1843 to 1900 and from 1867 director of the Royal Academy of Music. He became honorary doctor there in 1879. Hartmann introduced the tone that was later characterized as the specific Northern-Romantic tone and considerably influenced the Danish composers of his century. He continued composing in a steady development until his 89th year, and his latest compositions are among the most important and independent works in Danish music. His works include ballets (together with Aug. Bournonville), orchestral works, melodrama, chamber music, piano and organ works, and a considerable number of songs.